The ancient city of Zaria was established as the seat of the throne of Zazzau more than 700 years ago, while the whole kingdom of Zazzau is about 1000 years old and is among the oldest and most populous kingdoms in Northern Nigerian.

The emirate is situated in the centre of Northern Nigeria, and at present covers an area of approximately 20,800Sq Km, located between latitude 9 and 12 degrees North and longitude 7 and 9 degree East Zaria, the administrative headquarters of Zazzau Emirate, is named after the younger Sister of the famous Queen Amina, who conquered and annexed almost all the important Hausa States. Evidences of her conquests are still visible in some of the Hausa towns, where the security walls (Ganuwar Amina) still exist. As a result of successful expeditions, especially during the reign of Queen Amina, whose activities have gone down into the books of history, the frontiers of Zazzau were extended to cover the present day Nasarawa State, its boundaries reached, Niger, Kano, Plateau, Katsina and Bauchi States. By the close of the 18th century, the Kindom of Zazzau covered an area of about 37,850 Sq MLs. Therefore, it is important to know that within that period, the capital of the kingdom was transferred from Turunku to Kufena (kufena rock can be sighted from emir’s palace) and finally to Zaria city, due to its fovourable geographical location. The long reign of the Habe (Non Fulani rulers) came to a close in the early part of the 19th century as a result of the Fulani conqest of 1804.

Following the success of Danfodio’s Islamic Reformation in 1804, some prominent Fulani Scholars were given flags (symbol of authority or permission) to carry out administration in their respective places. Mallam Musa (funder of Mallawa dynasty in Zazzau) became the flag bearer in Zaria, and was accompanied by Mallam Yamusa (founder of Bare-Bare dynasty in Zazzau) and Malam Abdukarimu (founder of Katsinawa dynasty in Zazzau) on the instruction of Danfodio. On arrival to Zaria, the envoy attempted to enter into the city through Kofar Doka, when this proved to be fruitless, they entered through Kofan Bai, this event marked a turning point in the history of Zazzau .

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